Do not be accused of plagiarism, which includes copying another’s work, paraphrasing or summarising without acknowledgement, colluding with other people and presenting either identical or very similar essays
What does referencing include?
A. In-text citations, which can take three forms:
- Paraphrasing, for which you keep the original author’s >B. A reference list in the end of your essay, which include details such as for example:
- Date of publication
- Publisher and put of publication (for books)
- Journal name, volume and issue (for journals)
- Internet address or doi (digital object >
Referencing is integral to academic essay writing and really shouldn’t be viewed as an ‘add-on’. When you’re referencing, always utilize a referencing guide to help you ensure 100% accuracy.
Normally, when writing an essay at university you’ll be expected to only use sources that are academic. The learning that is following on source credibility will help you see whether an external source is academic or otherwise not.
The APA is used by the chocolate essay form of referencing, that is easy to distinguish through the Harvard Author-Date System, whilst the format is different:
|Try and achieve a balance between both kinds of in text-references in your essay writing.|
Within the APA style of referencing, the reference list has conventions that are certain you must also follow. Check out examples through the chocolate essay:
|Don’t make referencing something you will do in the same way an proofreading or editing activity. Include your citations that are in-text reference list in the first draft.|
An excellent web site to assistance with your APA referencing could be the APA Interactive tool at Massey University.
Leave yourself the time to look at your essay more often than once. For a 1000 word essay you will need at least 3 days to redraft your essay.
|Always save each draft as a file that is separate you’ll be able to see how your essay develops and improves.|
Here are the types of questions you should think about:
You may want to glance at other checklists such as this one on editing your own personal work.
Let’s see how the author of the chocolate essay redrafted their original introduction:
Now compare the above utilizing the final draft:
Since Spanish explorers brought back chocolate through the “” new world “”, chocolate consumption has become a worldwide phenomenon. A derivative of the cacao bean, was consumed as a drink, only later achieving mass popularity in tablet or bar form at first, chocolate. However, chocolate’s popularity that is inherent not equate to it possessing healthy properties, as suggested by the title. The realities of chocolate tend to be more down seriously to earth; a number of the realities will likely be addressed in this essay. Chocolate has chemical properties that can influence mood and there is possible evidence for some positive impacts of chocolate on cardiovascular health. Yet, such positive attributes are counterbalanced somewhat because of the argument that, in certain instances, chocolate may very well be a drug in the place of a food. Moreover, there is the probability of some correlation between over-consumption of chocolate and obesity. Thus, it’s going to be argued that despite chocolate’s positive effect in some cases on mood and the cardiovascular system it has in addition been connected to addiction and obesity.
Invest some time and stay careful when redrafting—it shall be worth every penny!
How do you write in an academic way?
Your lecturers would want to hear your ‘voice’ as they read your essay.
Imagine your essay as a kind of story. You are the storyteller that is principal the interior voice of this writer, leading the reader right through to your conclusion.
Through the whole story, you will find different voices that appear every once in awhile. These are the external voices (citations) that add substance to your story, providing detail and support for what you will be saying or even giving an alternative perspective. The external voices can be split into two categories in your essay: the direct external voice of an author (through a direct quote) and the indirect external voice of an author (through a paraphrase).
Your reader has to know at all right times whose voice they are hearing. Is it your internal voice or perhaps the external voice of other authors?
You may wonder how you can include your very own voice but still sound academic if you are writing about a subject area in which you have little (or no) knowledge. As well as your voice doesn’t mean that you need to say ‘I think’ or ‘in my opinion’.
Here are a few samples of the critical/analytical language you present other people’s ideas that you can use as your own internal voice when:
|Showing that there is a contrast with a previous argument you have included|
|Smith and Jones (2010) assert that…||Showing that the position of the external source is strong but you are likely to have doubts|
Let’s look at one of many paragraphs from the chocolate essay to observe how the written text is an interplay associated with voice that is internal of writer and also the external voices of other authors.
The voice that is internal of writer is colour-coded in yellow; the indirect external voices of other authors (i.e. paraphrases) are coded in grey; and the direct external voices of other authors (for example. quotations) are coded in blue.
This really is a paragraph that is balanced. The writer sets the scene at the beginning of the topic sentence and also links together all of the sentences, using their own voice to lead into content which will be given by the external voices.
Go through the same paragraph re-written, aided by the amount of the writer’s voice substantially reduced:
Here the writer is not charge that is‘in for the paragraph, and it also reads a little like a list. That is something your lecturers do not want to see.
|Whenever you are drafting your paragraphs, use a system that is colour-coding the main one used here. It will help you make sure your academic voice is that is clear|
When you have more confident in using external sources, you will gradually expand the language of one’s critical internal voice. The Phrasebank website at Manchester University provides types of some more expressions to utilize when assessing external sources.
Editing focuses on the big picture elements such as for instance overall structure, appropriate paragraphing and whether the question happens to be answered.
Proofreading has a micro-focus on the facts of the essay, such as formatting, punctuation and grammar.
Everybody has their own style that is personal of and proofreading. You need to concentrate on the types of errors you commonly make by looking at the marker’s comments on the previous work.
Some individuals proofread alone; some get other people involved. Having others involved is a idea that is really good.
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